The muffin method is, perhaps, the simplest baking technique and encompasses a large variety of products like cookies, muffins, waffles, pancakes, etc. There are four steps. Step 1 is to mix all the dry ingredients. Step 2 is to mix all of the wet ingredients. Step 3 is to mix the wet ingredients into the dry ingredients. And step 4 is to bake until done.
The characteristic pattern of incongruent holes are created by the chemical leavening (baking soda and baking powder). Baking powder releases upon mixing dry and wet ingredients producing carbon dioxide bubbles. Upon heating the baking powder is released again and baking soda is released causing the intial bubbles to be expanded upon and creating new bubbles. The proteins, starches, and fats in the batter bake around these bubbles creating the structure.
Basic Muffin Method